Bridge Kartenspiel Inhaltsverzeichnis
Bridge ist ein Kartenspiel für vier Personen. Je zwei sich gegenübersitzende Spieler bilden eine Mannschaft, die zusammen spielt und gewertet wird. Es werden französische Karten verwendet. Ziel des Spieles ist es, möglichst viele Stiche zu machen. Bridge (speziell Kontrakt-Bridge) ist ein Kartenspiel für vier Personen. Je zwei sich gegenübersitzende Spieler bilden eine Mannschaft, die zusammen spielt und. Ein Bridgespiel besteht aus zwei Phasen: Reizung und Kartenspiel. In der Reizphase bieten die Spieler um die minimale Anzahl von Stichen, die sie glauben in. Jeder Spieler sortiert seine Karten (verdeckt) nach Farben und Rang. Farben: Deutscher Bridge-Verband e.V., DBV, Bridge, Kartenspiel, Bridgespieler. Bridge ist mit Sicherheit die Mutter aller Kartenspiele, denn für jemanden, der Bridge Es handelt sich um ein Kartenspiel für vier Personen, wobei von den vier.
Bridge ist weltweit bekanntestes Kartenspiel. Dessen Spielregeln wurden durch World Bridge Föderation festgelegt. Hier sind die Spielregeln und -abläufe. Spiele ohne Anmeldung - Bridge liefert den ultimativen Suchtfaktor - gratis! ✅ Spiel Bridge so lange du möchtest ✅ - Viel Spaß bei ➤ huizum-west.nl Bridge (speziell Kontrakt-Bridge) ist ein Kartenspiel für vier Personen. Je zwei sich gegenübersitzende Spieler bilden eine Mannschaft, die zusammen spielt und. Spiele ohne Anmeldung - Bridge liefert den ultimativen Suchtfaktor - gratis! ✅ Spiel Bridge so lange du möchtest ✅ - Viel Spaß bei ➤ huizum-west.nl Bridge ist weltweit bekanntestes Kartenspiel. Dessen Spielregeln wurden durch World Bridge Föderation festgelegt. Hier sind die Spielregeln und -abläufe. Bridge ist ein Spiel für 4 Personen, wobei jeweils 2 Spieler eine Allianz bilden und Dafür benötigt wird ein französisches Blatt-Kartenspiel ohne Joker. Bei Bridge handelt es sich um ein Stichspiel. Das Kartenspiel ist für vier Personen geeignet, von denen jeweils zwei ein Team bilden. Die sich. Die Gefahrenlage spielt für die Stichpunkte keine Rolle:. Somit erhält ein erfüllter kontrierter Teilkontrakt eine Vollspielprämie. Abbildung Englisch Zweifärber mit 18 Figuren- und einem Längenpunkt. Meine Favoriten Favoriten verwalten Zuletzt gespielt. Schnappen in der langen Hand bringt in der Regel keine Zusatzstiche. Stich: Vier gespielt Karten d. Keine Sorge! Bei diesem 'Bietsystem' sind Geheimabsprachen Automaten Verband unzulässig. Ende des Passwort ändern Email Adresse ändern Profil löschen Support. Die restlichen Karten besitzen eine Wertigkeit von 0. In Gefahr erhöhen sich sowohl die Prämien für gewonnene Spiele als auch die Strafen für verlorene Spiele. Spielautomaten sind beliebt. Dieser Umstand macht Bridge sehr reizvoll, denn es reicht nicht aus, mit starken Blättern einfach viele Stiche zu machen, diese müssen vorher auch angesagt werden. HCP Volleyball International. Each pair is awarded 2 matchpoints for each pair who scored worse than them on that board, and 1 matchpoint for each pair who scored equally. So in the example, on the first board the difference between the two tables was 30 against us, and we lose 1 IMP. It is traditional to refer to the Gospring according to their position at the table as North, East, South and West, so North and South are partners playing against East and West. You are South, and the other three hands are bid and played by the AI. In an event of any size, there will be a tournament director whose job is to ensure that the play flows smoothly. The arrival of personal computers Skat Schneider Ansagen the Internet opened up new opportunities Beste Spielothek in AltmГ¶rbitz finden instruction and play. Similarly you are free to make a bid which Beste Spielothek in EysГ¶lden finden inconsistent with your system to upset the opposition, provided that this is as much Spiele Super Star 81 - Video Slots Online a surprise to your partner as it is to the opponents. The team which held more high card points finds its Jaxx Gewinnauszahlung Deutschland score, which depends on whether they were vulnerable or not, from the following table:. If the declarer's side Beste Spielothek in Keilsried finden fewer tricks Lets Play Programm they bid, neither side scores anything below the line, Beste Spielothek in Staudachhof finden the declarer's opponents score above the line. Players should declare their system if any at the start of a session.
Bridge rules Bridge game walkthrough tutorial Where to play bridge game Test your duplicate bridge skills Additional resources to learn Bridge game.
Have you ever wanted to learn to play bridge? You can find many examples of a tutorial all over the internet, but if you want to learn bridge game, we have gathered a fine collection of resources rules, requirements, card play, bidding conventions, quizzes to help you get started.
Bridge game rules start out simple but get progressively more complicated. There are several things to consider, such as bridge bidding, scoring, other bridge game rules that might confound beginners or even intermediate players.
Our resources will help you understand not only the rules themselves but also the reason behind some of the complexities.
Once you have decided to learn bridge game, the bare minimum materials you need : 4 players A 52 cards deck A score pad Something with which to write.
Advanced players, particularly playing duplicate bridge, will also need bidding boxes and "boards," which are trays into which the cards are inserted.
Bridge rules. As we saw previously, bridge is a card game played with 4 players divided into 2 teams of 2 people each.
The two teams are also called "pairs". The other two players are the defenders for that hand. These terms are just a few of the things you will learn during learning bridge.
If you want to know more about these bridge terms, please visit our bridge glossary or go to our how to play bridge tutorial in our app. When you use our tutorial, how to play bridge will become clearer and clearer as you progress.
Bridge bidding. A bridge deal consists of two phases: bidding and card play. In this phase, players bid for the minimum number of tricks they think they can take to win the deal.
The dealer makes the first call. He is the "opener". Then the auction proceeds clockwise. There may be several bidding rounds. The bidding ends when three players in succession say Pass, meaning that they do not want to bid higher.
The final bid becomes the "contract". A bid in bridge consists of: A number from 1 to 7 called "level". A suit spades, hearts, diamonds or clubs or "notrump" NT.
The number refers to the total number of tricks six plus the number indicated in the bid one pair has contracted to make. The suit indicates the trump suit.
For instance, the North-South pair has bid 4H. It commits to making 10 tricks with hearts as trumps. If a player thinks that the last bid made by one of his opponents is too optimistic, he can double it when it is his turn to speak.
This double can be redoubled by an opponent. The purpose of bidding is to relay information about the strengths and weaknesses of your hand to your partner.
It will help you determine the easiest contract to make based on your respective hands. Each pair is awarded 2 matchpoints for each pair who scored worse than them on that board, and 1 matchpoint for each pair who scored equally.
In North America it is customary to count just one matchpoint for each pair scoring worse than you on a board, and half a matchpoint for those that are equal.
This obviously makes no difference to the final ranking order or percentages scored by the pairs.
Then the total matchpoints scored by each pair over all the boards are calculated. This is generally converted to a percentage for each pair of the points they scored compared to the theoretical maximum.
This gives a fair comparison between pairs who have played different numbers of boards. The winners are the pair with the highest percentage.
There may be prizes for 1st, 2nd, 3rd place, etc. Another, less usual way of scoring pairs is with a version of the IMP scoring used for team matches see above.
There are two kinds of IMP pair games: your score may be IMPed against every other pair that played the same hands, or against a form of average of the scores of all the pairs who played the hand.
Sometimes the movement is such that the North-South pairs stay put and the East-West pairs remain East-West throughout. In this case the results for the East-West pairs and the North-South pairs are separate, and there are two winning pairs.
To enable all the pairs to be placed in a single ranking order, the last round is sometimes played with an arrow switch.
This means that the players who were previously North-South play the East-West cards for that round and vice versa. I am told that in many North American tournaments "pickup slips" were used instead of travellers - that is, there was an individual score slip for each table in each round.
After North had filled out the details and East or West had checked it, it was left face down on the table and picked up by the organisers during the next round.
This facilitated the calculation of final scores by computer, as the results of earlier rounds could be entered while the later rounds are being played.
It also prevented players from seeing the results obtained by other players who previously played the same cards, which might be considered an advantage or a disadvantage.
Nowadays it is increasingly common for scores to be entered directly into a computer terminal at the table. These can be configured to provide or not to provide information about previous results for that board, and can be set to ask the person entering the details to also record the opening lead.
During a duplicate event, where play will be in progress at several tables at the same time, it is important that players do not see, overhear or otherwise take an interest in the play at the other tables.
Any attempt to do so would be cheating, as it might give unauthorised information about the distribution of cards or the result of a board which the player would later be playing.
For similar reasons, partners should not discuss the boards they have played in the hearing of other players until the end of the event or a suitable break at a time when everyone has played the same boards.
In many places devices are used to enable the bidding to proceed silently, reducing the chance of hearing bids from another table. The best arrangement is for each player to have a bidding box , which is a box containing cards displaying all the possible bids, pass, double and redouble.
At your turn you display the relevant card. All the cards used for bids remain on view until the end of the auction, thus also avoiding the problem of players forgetting or mishearing part of the bidding.
A cheaper but less satisfactory method is to use a large card with a compartment for each possible bid; at your turn you point to the bid you wish to make.
I am told that in Australia, overhearing of bids is commonly avoided by requiring bids to be written down rather than spoken. In an event of any size, there will be a tournament director whose job is to ensure that the play flows smoothly.
This person will deal with any infringements of the rules that occur, referring when necessary to the laws. If some irregularity occurs, such as a bid out or play out of turn, an illegal bid or play, or discovering that the cards have been wrongly boarded the hands contain more or fewer than 13 cards , the director should be called to the table.
This should not be construed as an accusation of cheating - the purpose of calling the director is simply to ensure that the irregularity is sorted out fairly and in accordance with the rules.
The instructions and decisions of the director should be followed and respected at all times. In a serious tournament, if you strongly disagree with the director's ruling, it should be possible to appeal against the director's decision.
The procedure for this varies according to the nature of the event - the director should be able to advise you on the options. In tournament Bridge, if you make a bid at a level higher than necessary in that denomination a "jump" bid , you are supposed to precede your bid by saying "stop" or displaying your "stop" card if you are using bidding boxes.
The next player must then pause before bidding or passing. The reason behind this is that after a jump bid the next player may have reason to hesitate, as your unexpectedly high bid might have disrupted the course of action which that player was planning.
The player is forced by the stop rule to hesitate anyway, so avoiding giving unauthorised information.
If South had been planning to bid two spades, say, then he might need time after East's unexpected jump to decide whether a three spade bid would now be appropriate.
As South is forced to pause, North gets no clue as to whether the jump gave South a problem. Similarly, if South instead bids three spades after the mandatory pause, he gives North no clue as to whether he was considering a pass instead.
I am told that in North America the correct use of "stop" cards is poorly understood by players and that for this reason from the start of "stop" cards will no longer be used in tournaments, and will probably also be abandoned by bridge clubs.
In other parts of the world, for example in Britain, "stop" cards continue to be used. The idea of alerts is to warn the opponents of a bid or double or pass which has an unexpected agreed meaning.
It is always the duty of the partner of the bidder to alert the bid when required. If using bidding boxes, this is done by displaying the "alert" card.
Otherwise the alert is given by saying "alert" or in Britain but not in North America by knocking the table.
The definition of what bids require alerts varies from place to place - it is determined by the Bridge organisation under whose aegis the tournament is being held.
In Britain, most artificial bids must be alerted; in North America, alerts are required for bids which diverge from a defined standard set of meanings.
Since the late 's, "announcements" have been introduced in some places. When bids with certain specific meanings are made, the bidder's partner must say a specific phrase that explains the meaning of the bid.
For example the partner of a player who makes an opening bid of "one no trump" might be required to disclose the partnership's agreed range of strength for that bid in "high-card points" , by saying for example "12 to 14" or "16 to 18".
This is information which you obtain in some other way than as a legitimate deduction from the bidding and play. Unauthorised information might arise from:.
The principle is that you are allowed to take advantage of anything done by your opponents at your table, but you are obliged to ignore any unauthorised information gained from your partner's actions or from other tables.
In fact if you do obtain unauthorised information from your partner, you should not only ignore it but be prepared to prove that you have done so.
This means that if you are involved in any kind of close decision you ought to take the action opposite to the one indicated by the information from your partner.
For example if during the bidding your partner passes after a hesitation, you must pass too unless you have a cast iron case for bidding, otherwise you might be accused of making use of the unauthorised information that your partner had nearly enough strength to bid.
In Bridge it is illegal to behave deliberately in such a way as to try to give spurious information to the opponents.
For example if you have only one card of a suit that is led, it is illegal to hesitate before playing it, creating the impression that you had more than one card to choose from.
Even an inadvertent hesitation would be an offence, though a less serious one, if it misled the opponents to your benefit, and the director would adjust the score to give a fair result.
On the other hand there is no ban on making deceptive bids and plays to confuse the opponents - as long as these are not part of an undisclosed partnership agreement.
You are free for example to play a card different from what might be expected from your holding, provided that you play the card smoothly and without comment.
Similarly you are free to make a bid which is inconsistent with your system to upset the opposition, provided that this is as much of a surprise to your partner as it is to the opponents.
Of course you must always bid and play legally, in turn and in accordance with the ranking of bids, the rules of following suit, and so on, even if your choice of bid or play is unorthodox and unexpected.
There are several versions of this game, also known in the official rules as Four-Deal Bridge. As this name suggests it is a game for four players which is complete in four deals, unlike Rubber Bridge , where the length of a rubber is indefinite.
This greater predictability has made it popular in some American clubs where Rubber was formerly played.
If all four players pass, the cards are shuffled again and the hand redealt by the same dealer. The game bonus is when vulnerable, when not vulnerable.
If a team makes a part score this is carried forward to subsequent deals until one side makes a game. If a team makes a part score in hand 4 that is not sufficient to complete a game, they score a bonus of , but there is no bonus for any part scores made in earlier hands.
No game here because N-S's score below the line is less than This brings their score below the line to , which counts as a vulnerable game because E-W are vulnerable for this hand, even though this is the first game they have made.
However, this is not a game: their 60 below the line from hand 1 no longer counts towards game because of the game E-W made in hand 3.
Therefore N-S score just a further for finishing with a part score. Note: the original version of Chicago had the vulnerability reversed in hands 2 and 3, so that the dealing side was vulnerable.
The more modern scheme, which has the non-dealing side vulnerable as shown above, tends to lead to more competitive bidding.
Chicago is sometimes played using duplicate scoring. There is no accumulation of part scores or games from deal to deal - each deal is scored separately, and a team making a part score gets an immediate bonus of 50 as in duplicate.
The sequence of vulnerability is fixed as in the standard version. A multiple of four hands can be played, repeating the sequence of vulnerabilities as often as necessary.
The result is simply the total score over the deals played. The following method of scoring Chicago originated in Russia. It eliminates some of the luck of the deal by introducing an element of IMPs scoring.
On each deal, there is a target score which depends on the number of high card points held. The cards are played in front of the players, as in duplicate.
At the end of the play, the high card points held by each side are counted, according to the following scale:.
There are 40 points in all. The team which held more high card points finds its target score, which depends on whether they were vulnerable or not, from the following table:.
The difference between the target score from the above table and the actual score is then converted to IMPs, using the standard IMP table.
The total IMP scores over a series of hands are totaled to give an overall result. For example, suppose we are East-West, and on the second deal of a Chicago we bid three hearts and make 10 tricks.
We then count our high card points and discover that between us we had We were vulnerable, so our target score from the table was We actually scored 90 for the contract plus 30 for the overtrick plus 50 for the part score.
So we are points short of our target. Second example. In the first deal of a Chicago we bid and make 4 Spades holding only 18 points between us.
Our opponents had a target of 70 but instead we made The difference is so we score plus 10 IMPs. There are several alternative versions of this scoring table.
In Estonia, a compensation table is used which also takes into account the fit between the hands of the partners with the majority of high card points.
The details are available on this archive copy of Tanel Teinemaa's Compensation Table web site. The Beer Card is the Seven of Diamonds.
It is not part of the official rules of Bridge, but there is a tradition among some players that if the declarer succeeds in making the contract and wins the last trick with the Seven of Diamonds, dummy must buy the declarer a beer of the declarer's choice.
In the same way, if the opponents defeat the contract and one of them wins the last trick with the Seven of Diamonds, the opponent who wins the last trick is bought a beer by the other opponent.
The Beer Card tradition originated in Copenhagen in the 's or 's. It was probably inspired by:. Bridge has become so popular and fashionable that some players can hardly believe that any other card game is worth learning, but Bridge is a four-player game.
When two such people want to play cards and no other players are available, instead of playing a card game designed for two players, they sometimes prefer to resort to two-player adaptations of Bridge, known as Honeymoon Bridge.
There are several different versions, all somewhat unsatisfactory. Rules can be found on the Honeymoon Bridge page of this site.
Minibridge is a simplified version of Bridge that was introduced in Europe in the 's as a teaching aid for new players. In its most straightforward form it works as follows.
This is the popular Milton Work point count used by many Bridge players to evaluate the approximate strength of a hand for bidding purposes.
But instead of bidding in the usual way, in Minibridge each player in turn, beginning with the dealer, simply announces his or her point count.
The point counts of the four players should add up to The partnership with the higher total point count plays the contract, the declarer being the whichever player of that partnership holds more points.
If each partnership has 20 points there is a redeal by the same dealer. If both members of the declaring partnership have the same number of points for example 12 each , the declarer is the member of the partnership who spoke first - that is the dealer or the player to dealer's left.
The declarer's partner puts down the dummy, and the declarer, having seen partner's hand announces whether the contract will be a "game" or a "part score" and also the trump suit or "no trumps".
Then the player to declarer's left leads to the first trick and play proceeds as in normal Bridge. The scores for each trick above six are as usual: 20 if trumps were clubs or diamonds, 30 if trumps were hearts or spades, and 40 for the first trick and 30 for each subsequent trick if there are no trumps.
There is no set overall target score. Players play an agreed number of deals after which scores are compared to give the result. There are several more elaborate versions of Minibridge played in various parts of Europe.
For example instead of players announcing their points, each player writes on a slip of paper the number of points and the number of cards held in each suit.
Then players speak in turn, starting with the dealer, the options being "pass" or "I open". If all pass the cards are redealt.
If a player opens, the opener's partner's slip is passed to the opener, and the opener uses this to choose a contract, which is like a bid in Contract Bridge - a number of tricks above six and a trump suit or no trumps.
After this, the opener's left-hand opponent receives his or her partner's slip and can either pass or "overcall".
If the opponent passes the opener's contract is played. If the opponent overcalls, he or she must name a contract higher than the opener's bid: either more tricks or the same number of tricks in a higher denomination.
The opener can then bid again, and the overcaller and opener continue to bid alternately, each bid being higher than the last, until one of them passes.
The final bidder becomes the declarer and plays the final contract. Abridged is a proprietary game, based on Minibridge. The Bridge World home page has some good introductory material for beginners, as well as problems, a book list, samples from their magazine, and links to other sites.
The BridgeHands site provides an indexed encyclopedia of Bridge terms, summaries of popular bidding systems, a copy of the laws, some book reviewed and other resources.
David Stevenson's Bridge Page has a collection of articles, stories, information and useful links. The Bridge Base site provides articles and educational software and well as an on line Bridge server.
The web site of the Pattaya Bridge Club in Thailand has a fair amount of Bridge information, including a useful reference section on conventions.
Zusätzlich gibt es künstliche auch: konventionelle Gebote, bei denen zwischen genannter Farbe und Verteilung des Blattes kein Zusammenhang besteht.
Künstliche Gebote beschreiben in speziellen Situationen das Blatt besser und einfacher als natürliche Gebote.
Die Stayman - und die Blackwood -Konvention werden heute von fast jedem Paar verwendet, andere Konventionen nur seltener. Manche Konventionen verschwanden mit der Zeit.
Ein Paar vereinbart vor dem Spiel, welche Konventionen es verwendet. Gibt ein Spieler ein künstliches Gebot ab, muss sein Partner die Gegner durch alertieren darauf aufmerksam machen.
Ein forcierendes Gebot zwingt den Partner zu einem weiteren Gebot, d. Das verwendete Bietsystem bestimmt, welche Gebote forcierend sind und ob das Forcing für eine Runde oder bis zum Erreichen eines bestimmten Gebots gilt.
Häufig ist das Bieten einer neuen Farbe forcierend. Ein Sperrgebot soll dem Gegner das Finden des optimalen Kontrakts erschweren. Dadurch kann dieser sein Blatt weniger genau beschreiben.
Damit verwandt ist das Opfergebot. Bei einem Opfergebot rechnet der Spieler nicht damit, den Kontrakt zu erfüllen.
Die Faller bringen der Gegenpartei jedoch weniger Punkte ein, als wenn diese selbst einen Kontrakt angesagt und erfüllt hätte. Beide Gebote werden mit Blättern abgegeben, die schwach sind, aber viele Karten in einer Farbe beinhalten.
Ein Bietsystem fasst alle Partnerschaftsvereinbarungen und Konventionen, die ein Paar beim Reizen verwendet, zusammen. In einem guten Bietsystem ist zumindest jedem Punktintervall ein Gebot zugeordnet, so dass es zu keinen Lücken kommt.
Um präzisere Informationen übermitteln zu können, werden in Bietsystemen zusätzlich künstliche Gebote aufgenommen, die sich in die Logik des Grundsystems möglichst harmonisch einfügen.
Ein Paar muss sich vor dem Spiel auf ein gemeinsames System einigen. Wie bei den Konventionen wurden und werden Bietsysteme erfunden und weiterentwickelt.
Das verwendete System ist nicht geheim, sondern muss auf Verlangen dem Gegner offengelegt werden. Es gibt eine Vielzahl von Systemen, teilweise unterscheiden sie sich nur geringfügig.
Standard-Blätter werden bei den meisten Systemen gleich oder ähnlich gereizt. Eine eingespielte Partnerschaft hat üblicherweise genaue Kenntnis über die Feinheiten ihres Systems.
Bei spontanen Partnerschaften kann es bei Nicht-Standard-Situationen aber durchaus zu Meinungsverschiedenheiten über die Bedeutung eines Gebots kommen.
In Deutschland hat der Deutsche Bridge-Verband das offizielle System des französischen Verbandes übernommen und modifiziert. Der Verband empfiehlt dieses Forum D genannte System den von ihm ausgebildeten Bridgelehrern und den ihm angeschlossenen Vereinen als Standardsystem auch zur Ausbildung von Anfängern.
Obwohl alle Spieler 26 Karten sehen, gilt das Spiel des Alleinspielers als einfacher als das der Gegenspieler. Ersterer kennt alle Karten seiner Partei und damit genau seine Stärken und Schwächen.
Beispielsweise sieht er, in welcher Farbe seine Partei gemeinsam die meisten Karten hat und wo am besten Zusatzstiche entwickelt werden können.
Für einen Gegenspieler ist es zwar auch üblich, von seiner längsten Farbe auszuspielen, um dort Längenstiche zu entwickeln, es besteht aber immer die Gefahr, dass sein Partner eine noch längere — und damit geeignetere — Farbe besitzt oder auch die gespielte Farbe nicht unterstützen kann.
Um ein Spiel zu gewinnen, stehen in der Regel verschiedene Spielmöglichkeiten zur Verfügung, bei denen unter anderen die unten beschriebenen, grundlegenden Techniken zum Einsatz kommen.
Um die beste Variante zu wählen, ist es notwendig. Figurenstiche sind Stiche, die mit hohen Karten gemacht werden. Man unterscheidet zwischen Sofortstichen und Stichen, die erst entwickelt werden müssen.
Stechen die Gegner nicht mit dem Ass, kann das Manöver einfach mit der Dame und gegebenenfalls mit dem Buben wiederholt werden.
Figurenstiche ohne das Ass als Toppfigur können in Farben mit einer längeren lückenlosen Folge Sequenz entwickelt und erzielt werden, wenn man die Möglichkeit hat, ein zweites Mal ans Spiel zu kommen.
Wenn man nicht darauf achtet, kann es passieren, dass man sich bei der Entwicklung von Figurenstichen blockiert.
Es kommt beim Abspiel also häufig darauf an, dass man die Karten in der richtigen Reihenfolge spielt. Wird eine Farbe so lange gespielt, bis die Gegner keine Karten in dieser Farbe mehr haben, kann ein Spieler mit den restlichen Karten in dieser Farbe Stiche machen, obwohl diese sehr niedrig sein können sollte es eine Trumpffarbe geben, können die Gegner allerdings immer noch mit Trumpf stechen.
Je mehr Karten eine Partei in einer Farbe besitzt, desto höher ist die Wahrscheinlichkeit, Längenstiche zu machen.
Zur Entwicklung von Längenstichen kann es erforderlich sein, zunächst einmal den Gegner ins Spiel zu bringen, um später nach einem Wiedereinstieg in einer anderen Farbe die Länge zu nutzen.
Ein Schnitt wird gespielt, falls zwischen zwei Figuren eine fehlt. Man spricht von einer Gabel. Nähme Ost sofort das Ass, erzielte er immer nur einen Stich, unabhängig davon, ob der König bei Nord oder Süd sitzt, denn die Gegner werden den König nicht unter das Ass legen.
Es gibt eine Vielzahl von Varianten, z. Hier hofft man, dass die Dame vor dem Buben sitzt und man einen dritten Stich mit dem Buben macht.
Manchmal kann man einen Schnitt wiederholen und so drei anstatt nur zwei Stiche gewinnen. Wenn dieser hält, bringt Ost seinen Partner in einer anderen Farbe wieder zu Stich, und West kann den Schnitt wiederholen.
Es gibt Konstellationen, in denen man darauf verzichten kann, einen Übergang zum wiederholten Schnitt in einer neuen Farbe zu suchen.
Das Prinzip des Schnitts kann man gelegentlich gleich zweimal anwenden. Hat man eine Doppelgabel, kann man mit dem sogenannten Tiefschnitt arbeiten, indem man in der ersten Runde auf die 10 schneidet.
Der Expass funktioniert ähnlich wie der Impass, es fehlt allerdings die höchste Karte. Der Expass ist ein indirekter Schnitt, bei dem eine Konstellation besteht, in der der Gegenpartei ein Impass misslingen würde.
Die Karte, mit der man den Stich machen möchte, sitzt immer hinter der höheren Karte des Gegners und ist nicht blank. Die Gegner machen somit immer zumindest einen Stich.
Eine typische Spielsituation ist, dass man auf der einen Seite ein Ass mit mehreren kleinen Karten und auf der anderen Seite die Dame mit mehreren kleinen Karten hält.
Man kann mit der Dame nur einen Stich gewinnen, wenn man klein zur Dame spielt und der dahinter sitzende Spieler den König nicht hat.
Auch beim Expass gibt es Situationen, in denen man durch zweimaliges Spiel einen doppelten Coup erreichen kann. Man spielt von Süd klein zum Buben.
Auf Nord können zwei Stiche gewonnen werden. Wichtig ist — wie bei allen Formen von Expass und Impass —, dass man mit einer kleinen Karte zum Bild spielt.
Würde NS hingegen von den Figuren ausspielen, gingen alle Stiche verloren. In Spielen mit Trumpf können kleine Karten, die der Gegner stechen kann, durch Einsatz von Trümpfen geschnappt werden.
Der Alleinspieler versucht üblicherweise, Schnapper der Gegenspieler zu verhindern, indem er frühzeitig die Trumpffarbe spielt und dem Gegner dadurch seine Trümpfe nimmt.
Andererseits wird der Alleinspieler selbst versuchen, durch Schnappen zusätzliche Stiche zu gewinnen.
Die am häufigsten verfügbare Form, wie der Alleinspieler mit Schnappen Zusatzstiche erzielen kann, ist das Stechen mit der kurzen Trumpfseite.
Im einfachen Beispiel ist Coeur Trumpf. NS erzielen so sieben Stiche in Coeur. Hätte Nord direkt Trumpf mit seinen hohen Karten gezogen, wären die kleinen Coeur bei Süd unter die hohen Trumpfkarten gefallen, und die Gegner hätten die Möglichkeit auf zwei Treffstiche behalten.
Schnappen in der langen Hand bringt in der Regel keine Zusatzstiche. Wenn von der langen Hand durch Schnappen mehr Stiche erzielbar sind als auf der kurzen Hand, kann es sinnvoll sein, statt Trumpf zu ziehen, mit der langen Hand zu schnappen.
Ein Sonderfall ist der, dass man durch ein Stechen überkreuz Cross ruff mehr Stiche erzielen kann als durch Ziehen der Trümpfe.
Voraussetzung ist hier, dass man in der Hand und am Tisch jeweils eine Nebenfarbe hat, die auf der einen Seite lang und auf der anderen Seite kurz ist.
Zudem müssen die Trümpfe hoch genug sein, damit der Gegner nicht durch Zwischenstechen die eigene Aktion stören kann. Für die Gegenspieler ist eine der wichtigsten Aufgaben, ein für den Alleinspieler ungünstiges Ausspiel zu finden.
Mit einem für die eigene Seite ungünstigen Ausspiel kann man leicht dem Alleinspieler helfen, sich einen zusätzlichen Stich zu verschaffen, indem man in eine Gabel spielt oder ihm sogar hilft, eine Länge zu entwickeln.
Um so etwas zu vermeiden, gibt es Faustregeln, was man normalerweise tun oder in jedem Fall unterlassen sollte. So gilt oft, dass man nicht die vom Gegner gereizten Farben spielen sollte, denn da hat dieser seine Stärken.
Hat der Partner im Verlaufe der Reizung ein Gebot abgegeben, sollte man in vielen Fällen diese Farbe ausspielen, weil der Partner hier vermutlich Stärken und eine gewisse Länge hat.
Zudem besteht die Gefahr, dass der Alleinspieler kleine Karten in der Stärke seiner Gegner abwirft, wenn er erstmal am Spiel ist.
Hat der Partner nicht gereizt, sollte man versuchen, eigene Stiche zu entwickeln. Man vermeidet damit eine Gabel beim Gegner, und bei wiederholtem Spiel der Farbe hat man Figurenstiche entwickelt, weil die nächsten Karten der Sequenz das Spiel des Alleinspielers stoppen können.
Fast immer vermeiden sollte man das Ausspiel eines leeren Asses, d. Mit dem Ausspiel des Asses erhält der Alleinspieler nun einen sicheren Stich.
Es gibt eine Vielzahl von weiteren Regeln zum Ausspiel, mit denen man seine Chancen im Bridge deutlich verbessern kann. Ein sicheres Ausspiel hilft einem Spieler sehr schnell, seine Spielstärke im Bridge zu verbessern und vor allem in Turnieren besser abzuschneiden.
Die Gegenspieler tauschen durch die Reihenfolge, in der kleine Karten gespielt werden, oder durch den konkreten Wert einer Karte Informationen über ihr Blatt aus.
Pik weiterzuspielen ist sinnlos, denn der Alleinspieler würde schnappen. Die Trumpffarbe zu spielen, ist üblicherweise schlecht, denn der Alleinspieler hat dort viele Figuren.
Ost kann hier eine Lavinthalmarke geben: Mit einer hohen Pik-Karte z. Eine niedrige Pik-Karte von Ost hier z. Gelegentlich kommt es vor, dass der falsche Gegner zum ersten Stich ausspielt.
Liegt die ausgespielte Karte mit der Bildseite nach oben auf dem Tisch, so hat der Alleinspieler im Wesentlichen folgende Möglichkeiten:.
Ein falsches Ausspiel darf hingegen straflos zurückgenommen werden, wenn verdeckt ausgespielt wurde, die Karte also mit der Bildseite nach unten auf den Tisch gelegt wurde.
Als Revoke bezeichnet man das Nichtbekennen einer Farbe, obwohl man noch Karten der gewünschten Farbe hält. Ein Spieler muss sein Revoke berichtigen, wenn er es bemerkt, bevor es vollendet ist.
Um ein unvollendetes Revoke zu berichtigen, nimmt der schuldige Spieler die fälschlich gespielte Karte zurück und bedient mit einer anderen, beliebigen Karte die Farbe.
Ist der schuldige Spieler ein Gegenspieler, so wird die zurückgenommene Karte zu einer Strafkarte, das bedeutet, sie muss offen sichtbar vor dem Spieler liegen bleiben und bei der ersten Gelegenheit zugegeben oder ausgespielt werden, Karten des Tisches oder Alleinspielers können keine Strafkarten werden, sie dürfen straflos zurückgenommen werden.
Wird der Stich mit dem unvollendeten Revoke eines Gegenspielers vom Partner des schuldigen Gegenspielers gewonnen, so hat der Alleinspieler dieselben Rechte wie beim Ausspiel von der falschen Seite:.
The cards are shuffled by the player to dealer's left and cut by the player to dealer's right. The dealer deals out all the cards one at a time so that each player has Turn to deal rotates clockwise.
It is traditional to use two packs of cards. During each deal, the dealer's partner shuffles the other pack and places it to the right.
The dealer for the next hand then simply needs to pick up the cards from the left and pass them across to the right to be cut.
Provided all the players understand and operate it, this procedure saves time and helps to remember whose turn it is to deal, as the spare pack of cards is always to the left of the next dealer.
There is next an auction to decide who will be the declarer. A bid specifies a number of tricks and a trump suit or that there will be no trumps.
The side which bids highest will try to win at least that number of tricks bid, with the specified suit as trumps. When bidding, the number which is said actually represents the number of tricks in excess of six which the partnership undertakes to win.
For the purpose of bidding the possible trump suits rank as follows: no trumps highest , spades, hearts, diamonds, clubs lowest.
A bid of a larger number of tricks always beats a bid of a smaller number, and if the number of tricks bid are equal, the higher suit beats the lower.
The lowest bid allowed is "one club" to win at least 7 tricks with clubs as trumps , and the highest is "seven no trumps" to win all 13 tricks without trumps.
In North America, the term for contracts played without a trump suit is "notrump" or "no trump" without an 's'. It is also possible, during the auction, to "double" a bid by the other side or to "redouble" the opponents' double.
Doubling and redoubling essentially increase the score for the bid contract if won and the penalties if lost. If someone then bids higher, any previous doubles and redoubles are cancelled.
Note that doubling does not affect the ranking of a bid - for example a bid of two spades is always higher than two hearts, even if the two hearts bid has been doubled or redoubled.
The dealer begins the auction, and the turn to speak passes clockwise. At each turn a player may either:. If all four players pass on their first turn to speak the hand is said to be passed out.
The cards are thrown in and the next dealer deals. If anyone bids, then the auction continues until there are three passes in succession, and then stops.
After three consecutive passes, the last bid becomes the contract. The team who made the final bid will now try to make the contract.
The first player of this team who mentioned the denomination suit or no trumps of the contract becomes the declarer.
The declarer's partner is known as the dummy. North-South will try to win at least 10 tricks with spades as trumps; North, who mentioned spades first, is the declarer.
South's double of one heart was cancelled by West's bid of 3 hearts. The player to the left of the declarer leads to the first trick and may play any card.
Immediately after this opening lead, the dummy's cards are exposed. The dummy should arrange them neatly in suits, the cards of each suit arranged in rank order in an overlapping column, pointing towards the declarer, so that all the cards are clearly visible.
The trump suit if any should be to dummy's right declarer's left ; in the diagram, spades are trump. Play proceeds clockwise. Each of the other three players in turn must if possible play a card of the same suit that the leader played.
A player with no card of the suit led may play any card. A trick consists of four cards, one from each player, and is won by the highest trump in it, or if no trumps were played by the highest card of the suit led.
The winner of a trick leads to the next, and may lead any card. Each trick is gathered together and turned face down when complete, but you may ask to see the cards and ask who played which card until you or your partner has played to the next trick.
The tricks won are to be arranged neatly in front of one member of the winning side, so that they can easily be counted.
Dummy takes no active part in the play of the hand. Whenever it is dummy's turn to play, the declarer must say which of dummy's cards is to be played, and dummy plays the card as instructed provided that it is legal.
Dummy is not permitted to offer any advice or comment on the play. When dummy wins a trick, the declarer specifies which card dummy should lead to the next trick.
If when calling for a card the declarer specifies the suit only, dummy is to play the lowest card of that suit. It is also legal, and not unusual, for the declarer to play dummy's cards by physically taking them from dummy's hand rather than just calling for them.
This allows the dummy player to leave the table during the play of the hand. As its name suggests, Rubber Bridge is played in rubbers.
A rubber is the best of three games. A game is won by the first team to score or more points for successful contracts, over several deals if necessary.
A side which has already won one game towards the current rubber is said to be vulnerable. A side which has not yet won a game is not vulnerable. A side which is vulnerable is subject to higher bonuses and penalties than one that is not.
The score is kept on a piece of paper divided into two columns headed WE and THEY, for the two teams, with a horizontal line part-way down see example.
Scores for successful contracts are entered below the line , and count towards winning a game. Other scores, such as bonuses for tricks made in excess of the contract overtricks , or penalties for tricks short of the contract undertricks are entered above the line, and do not count towards winning the game.
For a successful contract, the score below the line for each trick in excess of 6 bid and made is as follows:. If the contract was doubled the above scores are doubled.
If it was doubled and redoubled, they are multiplied by 4. In addition, the declarer's side scores an extra 50 points above the line if they succeed in a doubled contract.
This is sometimes known as "50 for the insult". For making a redoubled contract the bonus is above the line. Because of the difference in score, clubs and diamonds are called the minor suits and hearts and spades are the major suits.
A contract to make 12 tricks is known as a small slam. A contract to make all 13 tricks is called a grand slam. For bidding and making a slam, declarer's side get an extra bonus above the line, depending on their vulnerability, as follows:.
If the declarer's side wins more tricks than were bid, and were not doubled, then in addition to the score below the line for the contract, they score for the overtricks above the line at the same rate as for bid tricks - i.
If the contract was doubled or redoubled, the bonus for overtricks does not depend on the trump suit, but does depend on whether the declarer's side was vulnerable as follows:.
If the declarer's side win fewer tricks than they bid, neither side scores anything below the line, but the declarer's opponents score above the line.
This score depends on the declarer's side's vulnerability, and whether the contract was doubled or redoubled, as follows:. The top five trumps A K Q J 10 are called honours.
If one player holds all five of these cards, that player's side scores a bonus of above the line. Four honours in one hand score If there are no trumps, and a player holds four aces, that player's side scores for honours.
Scores for honours are to be claimed at the end of the play it is assumed that the players will remember what they held. As there is no skill in scoring for honours, players often agree to play without the honour bonuses.
A side that accumulates points or more below the line has won a game. A new line is drawn under the scores. Anything the opponents had below the line does not count towards the next game - they start from zero again.
It is important to notice that, starting from zero and in the absence of doubles, to make a game in one hand you need to succeed in a contract of at least three no trumps, four spades, four hearts, five clubs or five diamonds.
The side which first wins two games wins the rubber. For this they get a bonus of if they won it two games to zero, or if it was two games to one.
Both sides' scores are then totalled and if the game is being played for money, the side with the higher score wins an amount proportional to the difference in scores from the side with the lower score.
If play ends for any reason with a rubber unfinished, then a side with a game gets a bonus of points, and a side with a part score i.
The scoresheet of a completed rubber might look like the example below. The letters in brackets indicate successive deals as described in the corresponding footnotes - they would not appear on the scoresheet.
This gives them a game below the line plus 30 above the line for their overtrick. A new line is ruled below the scores to indicate the start of a new game.
We score x 2 below the line for our doubled contract, giving us a game; above for our doubled non-vulnerable overtrick; 50 above for making a doubled contract; and bonus for a small slam bid and made.
Adding up the scores, we have and they have Therefore we have won by points even though they won the rubber. In this example the "above the line" scores were entered starting immediately above the line and working upwards.
This is traditional, at least in Britain, but not necessary - you can start at the top, just below the WE-THEY headings, and work downwards if you prefer.
John Paton has produced a slide show version of the above example - it is available as an Open Office presentation and as a Powerpoint presentation.
Some details of Bridge scoring were changed in for Duplicate Bridge and in for Rubber Bridge. Before the changes, the penalty for doubled undertricks when not vulnerable was for the first and each for all others and twice as much for a redoubled contract.
Also the bonus for making a redoubled contract was 50, not , and the bonus for a part score in an uncompleted rubber was 50, not As in most card games, partners are forbidden to convey information to each other by talking, gestures, facial expression, etc.
However there is considerable scope for partners to exchange information within the rules of the game by their choice of bids or cards played.
The bidding mechanism is such that if a player makes a bid or double or redouble , it is always possible for the player's partner at their next turn to override that bid with a higher bid.
This makes it possible for partners to assign arbitrary meanings to bids. Bids which can be taken at face value - that is they convey a genuine wish to play a contract to take the relevant number of tricks or more with the trump suit stated - are called natural.
Bids which carry an agreed meaning other than this are called artificial or conventional. For example if we are partners, we might agree that a bid of one club by me shows a strong hand, but has nothing to do with wanting clubs as trumps.
Provided that we both understand this, you will not leave me to play a contract of one club, but will make some other bid, natural or artificial.
Another example: since doubling a low-level suit contract in the hope of a penalty is unlikely to be profitable, almost all players use an agreement that in certain situations a double simply shows a good hand perhaps with additional specifications and asks partner to bid - this is known as a takeout double.
A bidding system is a comprehensive set of partnership agreements about the meanings of bids. For natural bids, players commonly have agreements on the number of cards held in a bid suit: for example in some natural systems, opening the bidding with one of a major suit implies a holding of at least five cards, while others require only four or more cards in the suit.
Agreements also often relate to high cards held in the bid suit or in the hand generally. Most bidding systems also include some agreements that in certain circumstances a player will not pass.
A bid, natural or artificial, which by agreement requires the player's partner to respond with a bid, rather than pass and allow the contract to be played, is called a forcing bid.
Sometimes the agreement is that after a certain bid both partners agree to keep the auction going until it reaches a certain level. For example a bid that by agreement requires the partnership to continue bidding until a game contract is reached is known as a game-forcing bid.
Such methods help ensure that with suitable cards partners will have more than one opportunity to bid.
These extra bids can be used to exchange further infomation about their hands and improve their chances of reaching the best contract.
The main restriction on agreements between partners about the meaning of bids is that all such agreements must be declared to the opponents.
Players should declare their system if any at the start of a session. Many clubs and tournaments require that this be done by means of a convention card which sets out the meanings of bids.
In addition, an player may, at their turn to bid or play, ask for and be given an explanation of the opponents' bidding agreements.
The explanation should be given by the partner of the player who made the bid in question. For example, if I double a suit contract, either opponent may, at their turn, ask my partner what the double means, and my partner must answer according to any agreement we may have about the meaning of the double - for example that it is for takeout or for penalties.
If we have no agreement on this, partner should say so - players are not required or permitted to speculate or to guess at the meanings of bids in answer to such a question.
It is sometimes agreed that after the auction, the declarer's left hand opponent, having asked any necessary questions about the declarer's side's bidding agreements, leads the first card face down.
The other opponent may then ask questions about the declarer's side's bidding, after which dummy's cards are exposed and play continues as usual.
This procedure minimises the risk that by asking a question you may give unauthorised information to your partner. Asking at other times during the bidding or play, though legal and sometimes necessary, might be taken to imply that your next bid or play will depend on the answer given.
Similar considerations apply to the play. Partners may agree on the meaning of the choice of card played in certain circumstances. For example we may agree that when leading from a sequence of adjacent high cards such as K-Q-J we always lead the highest.
Again, the opponents are entitled to know about such agreements. They should be declared on the convention card, and may be asked about during the play.
In Rubber Bridge one does not often come across complicated systems and partnership agreements. One is often playing with an unfamiliar partner, or in an informal setting.
Complicated agreements are more often encountered in Duplicate Bridge, where the players are often long standing partners who have devoted considerable effort to agreeing their system.
In Rubber Bridge , although the better players have a noticable edge and will undoubtedly win in the long run, the outcome of a single rubber depends heavily on which side is dealt the better cards.
The idea of Duplicate Bridge is to eliminate this element of luck, by having the same hands played more than once, by different sets of players.
Suppose we are partners and play a hand of Duplicate Bridge as North-South. Instead of being rewarded for our absolute score on that hand, our score is compared with those of other players who played the same deal as North-South against other opponents.
We win if we score better than other players managed with our cards, and lose if we score worse. For this comparison to be fair, it is necessary that each group of players who play the same deal should start from the same position.
Therefore it is not practicable to play rubbers, where the scores carried forward from deal to deal affect the tactical situation.
Instead, each deal is scored in its own right, and does not affect the scores for subsequent ones. The concept of vulnerability is retained, but on each deal the vulnerability is preassigned.
An almost essential piece of apparatus for playing Duplicate Bridge is a set of duplicate boards , and a pack of cards for each board.
Each board contains four pockets marked North, East, South and West in which the cards for the four players are stored.
Each board also carries a number to identify it, and has marks showing which of the players is dealer and whether each team is vulnerable or not.
The marking of the boards is as follows:. Before the boards are played the cards are shuffled, dealt and placed in the pockets.
Traditionally, this was done by a neutral person or by a player in the presence at least one opponent. Nowadays the cards are often dealt by computer, with the aim of ensuring perfect randomness while enabling a record of each deal to be kept.
A simple method is for the computer to produce a printed hand record or a set of curtain cards , specifying which cards should be in each hand on each board; a neutral person then has to construct the hands and put them in the pockets.
Since the early 21st century, however, computer controlled dealing machines have become widely available. These machines physically sort the playing cards and place them in the boards ready to be played.
Early models did this with the aid of a bar code printed on each card; these are gradually being superseded by machines that use optical character recognition OCR to identify and deal standard playing-cards.
When about to play a board, the players take their cards from the appropriate pockets, check to see that they have 13 each, and then bid as usual. The mark on the board showing the 'dealer' in practice just indicates which player is to begin the bidding.
The opening lead is always made face down, as explained above , to give the leader's partner an opportunity to ask questions about the bidding before the led card is shown.
During the play, the cards are not played in the centre of the table but in front of the players. At the end of each trick, all four players turn their played card face down.
The cards played by each player are overlapped, with the longer axis of the card pointing to the winners of the trick i.
That way you can easily see how many tricks you have won. Also, if the cards are kept in order, any dispute about revokes or tricks won or lost can be settled by reconstructing the play.
At the end of the play, each player's cards are gathered up and replaced in the correct pocket, ready for the next time the board is to be played.
When this method of play is used, dummy is expected to remain at the table if at all possible, and declarer then always calls dummy's cards rather than pulling them from the dummy.
You may ask to look at the cards played to a trick by the other players as long as your own card is face up.
Once you have turned your card face down, you no longer have the right to see any of the other cards played to that trick. Unless you are dummy, you are still allowed to peek at your own played card, without exposing it , until the lead is made to the next trick.
Each board is marked to show whether both sides, one side or neither side is vulnerable for that board.
You still need to score at least points for tricks bid and made to make a game , but on each board, both sides start with zero points towards games - there are no 'part scores' carried forward.
The rest of the scores are the same as in Rubber Bridge, except that there are no bonuses for honours in Duplicate Bridge. So for example:. These scores are of course not yet the final scores.
They have yet to be compared with the scores achieved by other people who have played the same cards as us on this board.
The method of doing this comparison varies according to what kind of duplicate is being played. Perhaps the commonest types are teams of four with international matchpoint IMP scoring, and matchpointed pairs.
A match can be played between two teams of four - eight players in all. Each team consists of two partnerships, and you need two tables - preferably in separate rooms so that players cannot overhear events at the other table.
Before starting the players agree how many boards will be played - this could be 24, 32, 48 or more, depending on the seriousness of the match and the time available.
A 24 board match should easily be completed within three hours. Shorter matches, sometimes of as few as 6 boards, are commonly played if the match is part of a larger tournament.
Longer matches are normally split into two or more segments or stanzas after each of which there may be a break and an opportunity to change seats.
Call the tables 1 and 2 and the teams A and B. Then the pairs of team A sit North-South at table 1 and East-West at table 2, and the pairs of team B occupy the other seats.
Take a convenient number of boards - say boards 1 to 12 - and give the first 6 to table 1 and the other 6 to table 2.
As each table finishes their 6 boards they are passed to the other table to be replayed. Since none of the players should go near the other table before everyone has played all 12 boards, it is best if the boards are transferred from table to table by a neutral referee; if none is available, the boards that have been played once can be left in a place away from both tables for collection by the players from the other table.
When all 12 boards have been played at both tables, it is a convenient time to compare scores and maybe enjoy some refreshments.
It may be agreed that for the next segment, the two pairs of one of the teams should swap places.
This gives each pair the opportunity to play against both pairs of the opposing team. The procedure about the number of segments in a match and the choice of seats for each segment may be laid down by the organiser of the event - otherwise it needs to be agreed between the team captains.
Each player should have a score card to record the score on each board. The card has a row for each board. The beginning of North's card from table 1, when completed, might look like this:.
The 'By' column shows who was declarer. The score is recorded from the player's point of view North's in the example - so when West goes down in 5 diamonds it is positive.
The IMPs can only be filled in when this card is compared with one of the cards from the other room. Some players prefer to enter the number of over- or undertricks in the "Tricks" column rather than the total number of tricks taken.
Suppose that our team mate East on table 2 has a card like this:. So in the example, on the first board the difference between the two tables was 30 against us, and we lose 1 IMP.
On the second board we lose 3 IMPs. Although on table 1 our North-South pair defeated West's 5 diamonds, on table 2 with the same cards our East-West pair allowed North to play and make 4 hearts.
On board 3, where we bid the small slam on table 2, while they stopped in game on table 1, we gain 13 IMPs for a point difference. On board 4 both Norths made 9 tricks in hearts, but we gain 6 IMPs because our North-South pair just bid 2 hearts rather than 4.
Overall we are 15 IMPs ahead on those four boards. After each scoring interval, the captains of the teams should check that the scores agree.
The purpose of every player keeping score is to make it easier for errors to be traced and corrected. At the end of the match, the result is the difference in IMPs between the teams.
Sometimes there is then a further conversion of this margin into a match result, in which some fixed number of victory points is apportioned between the teams.
There is no single standard conversion table, but here is an example table for a 24 board match:. In the example, if we were still 15 IMPs ahead having played 24 boards, using this table we would win the match If the match was part of some larger competition, such as a league, then we would score 13 victory points and our opponents would score 7.
There are also events in which many teams of four compete. There are various ways of organising these. At any particular time in such an event you will be playing a part of a match against some other team, and at some time your team-mates will play the other cards of the same boards against the other half of that same team.
The scores are eventually compared to find how many IMPs you won or lost against that team. Another way of scoring teams of four is akin to the matchpoint scoring used in pairs see below.
But in whist there is always a trump suit, determined by turning up the last card dealt to the dealer, and each player holds and plays his own hand.
In bridge whist, after the cards were dealt, the dealer could make the declaration name any suit as trump, or decide to play without any trump , or he could transfer this duty to his partner.
Otherwise play was as at whist. The side that won the majority of the tricks scored, for each odd trick trick over six : if spades were trumps, 2 points; clubs, 4; diamonds, 6; hearts , 8; no trump, 12; these values doubled and redoubled as previously determined.
The first side thus to score 30 or more points won game, and a fresh game was begun. The first side to win two games won rubber and received a point bonus.
In other respects the procedure at auction bridge underwent constant and frequent change. In its mechanics, contract bridge differs from auction bridge only in the scoring.
Values of tricks, penalties, and premiums are higher in contract bridge than in auction bridge, and large bonuses are awarded for bidding and making slam contracts.
See below Scoring. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback.
See Article History. The bridge games The first game of the series was originally called, simply, bridge, but it is now called bridge whist to distinguish it from the two later games.